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  Thermography Research  
    Special thanks to Mr. Graham J. Rockley of Ashwin Systems Int'l. Inc., for compiling this research material www.thermology.com  
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Breast Disease:

The Breast Journal, Volume 4, Number 4, 1998, 245-251
Infrared Imaging of the Breast: Initial Reappraisal Using High-Resolution Digital Technology in 100 Successive Cases of Stage I and II Breast Cancer.
Department of Oncology, St. Mary's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Department of Radiotherapy, London Cancer Center, London, Ontario; and Ville Marie Breast and Oncology Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Our initial experience would suggest that, when done concomitantly with clinical exam and mammography, high-resolution digital infrared imaging can provide additional safe, practical, and objective information. Our initial reappraisal would also suggest that infrared imaging, based more on process than structural changes and requiring neither contact, compression, radiation nor venous access, can provide pertinent and practical complementary information to both clinical exam and mammography, our current primary basic detection modalities.

Breast Cancer 2000 Apr 25;7(2):142-148
Skin Reactions after Breast-conserving Therapy and Prediction of Late Complications Using Physiological Functions.
Sekine H, Kobayashi M, Honda C, Aoki M, Nakagawa M, Kanehira C; Department of Radiology, Division of Radiotherapy, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan.
BACKGROUND: The temperature of the skin remains elevated long after breast-conserving treatment with irradiation, perhaps because evaporative cooling is impaired. We investigated physiological changes of the irradiated skin and reevaluated the radiosensitivity of sweat glands on a functional basis to determine whether severe complications can be predicted. METHODS: Breast and axillary skin temperatures were measured with thermography and sweat production in response to local thermal stimuli was measured on the basis of changes in electrical skin resistance with a bridge circuit in 45 women before, during, and after breast irradiation for breast cancer. RESULTS: Breast and axillary temperatures were significantly increased after irradiation. In response to cutaneous thermal stimuli, the electric skin resistance of nonirradiated areas decreased significantly because of sweating, but that of irradiated areas was unchanged. CONCLUSION: Impairment of sweating may play an important role in skin damage after irradiation. Although glandular tissue is not usually radiosensitive, the results of our functional assessment suggest that sweat glands are more radiosensitive than expected.

Int J Fertil Womens Med 2001 Sep-Oct;46(5):238-47
Circadian rhythm chaos: a new breast cancer marker.
Keith LG, Oleszczuk JJ, Laguens M.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
The most disappointing aspect of breast cancer treatment as a public health issue has been the failure of screening to improve mortality figures. Since treatment of late-stage cancer has indeed advanced, mortality can only be decreased by improving the rate of early diagnosis. From the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s, it was expected that thermography would hold the key to breast cancer detection, as surface temperature increases overlying malignant tumors had been demonstrated by thermographic imaging. Unfortunately, detection of the 1-3 degrees C thermal differences failed to bear out its promise in early identification of cancer. In the intervening two-and-a-half decades, three new factors have emerged: it is now apparent that breast cancer has a lengthy genesis; a long-established tumor-even one of a certain minimum size-induces increased arterial/capillary vascularity in its vicinity; and thermal variations that characterize tissue metabolism are circadian ("about 24 hours") in periodicity. This paper reviews the evidence for a connection between disturbances of circadian rhythms and breast cancer. Furthermore, a scheme is proposed in which circadian rhythm "chaos" is taken as a signal of high risk for breast cancer even in the absence of mammographic evidence of neoplasm or a palpable tumor. Recent studies along this line suggest that an abnormal thermal sign, in the light of our present knowledge of breast cancer, is ten times as important an indication as is family history data.

J Biomech Eng. 2004 Apr;126(2):204-11.
Effect of forced convection on the skin thermal expression of breast cancer.
Hu L, Gupta A, Gore JP, Xu LX.; School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
A bioheat-transfer-based numerical model was utilized to study the energy balance in healthy and malignant breasts subjected to forced convection in a wind tunnel. Steady-state temperature distributions on the skin surface of the breasts were obtained by numerically solving the conjugate heat transfer problem. Parametric studies on the influences of the airflow on the skin thermal expression of tumors were performed. It was found that the presence of tumor may not be clearly shown due to the irregularities of the skin temperature distribution induced by the airflow field. Nevertheless, image subtraction techniques could be employed to eliminate the effects of the flow field and thermal noise and significantly improve the thermal signature of the tumor on the skin surface. Inclusion of the possible skin vascular response to cold stress caused by the airflow further enhances the signal, especially for deeply embedded tumors that otherwise may not be detectable.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 Oct;93(1-2):245-51.
Infrared thermography for examination of skin temperature in the dorsal hand of office workers.
Gold JE, Cherniack M, Buchholz B. Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, MA 01854, Lowell, USA, Judith_Gold@uml.edu.
Reduced blood flow may contribute to the pathophysiology of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD), such as tendinitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. The study objective was to characterize potential differences in cutaneous temperature, among three groups of office workers assessed by dynamic thermography following a 9-min typing challenge: those with UEMSD, with ( n=6) or without ( n=10) cold hands exacerbated by keyboard use, and control subjects ( n=12). Temperature images of the metacarpal region of the dorsal hand were obtained 1 min before typing, and during three 2-min sample periods [0-2 min (early), 3-5 min (middle), and 8-10 min (late)] after typing. Mean temperature increased from baseline levels immediately after typing by a similar magnitude, 0.7 (0.3) degrees C in controls and 0.6 (0.2) degrees C in UEMSD cases without cold hands, but only by 0.1 (0.3) degrees C in those with cold hands. Using paired t-tests for within group comparisons of mean dorsal temperature between successive imaging periods, three patterns of temperature change were apparent during 10 min following typing. Controls further increased mean temperature by 0.1 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.001) at 3-5 min post-typing before a late temperature decline of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.04), while cases without cold hands showed no change from initial post-typing mean temperature rise during middle or late periods. In contrast, subjects with keyboard-induced cold hands had no change from initial post-typing temperature until a decrease at the late period of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.06). Infrared thermography appears to distinguish between the three groups of subjects, with keyboard-induced cold hand symptoms presumably due, at least partially, to reduced blood flow.

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